原创翻译:幸运分分彩代理 http://www.wgwed.com 翻译:tangerl 转载请注明出处



Films about ancient Greece such as Troy, Helen of Troy, and 300, have used actors who are of Anglo-Saxon or Celtic ancestry (e.g. Brad Pitt, Gerard Butler). films about ancient Rome, such as Gladiator and HBO’s series Rome, have done the same (e.g. Russell Crowe). Were the directors right, from an historical point of view? Were the ancient Greeks and Romans of North European stock?

关于古希腊的电影,如《特洛伊城的海伦》和《300勇士》 ,使用的演员都有盎格鲁-撒克逊或凯尔特血统( 如布拉德皮特、杰拉德巴特勒)。
关于古罗马的电影,例如《角斗士》和 HBO 的电视剧《罗马》 ,也是一样的( 例如《罗素 · 克劳》),从历史的角度来看,导演们是对的吗? 古希腊人和古罗马人是北欧人吗?

Most classical historians today are silent on the subject. For example, Paul Cartledge, a professor of Greek culture at Cambridge, writes about his specialty, Sparta, for educated but non-academic readers, yet nowhere that I can find does he discuss the racial origins of the Spartans. Some years ago I asked several classics professors about the race of the ancient Greeks only to be met with shrugs that suggested that no one knew, and that it was not something worth looking into. Today, an interest in the race of the ancients seems to be taken as an unhealthy sign, and any evidence of their Nordic origins discounted for fear it might give rise to dangerous sentiments.

今天大多数古典历史学家对这个问题保持沉默。
例如,剑桥大学的希腊文化教授保罗 · 卡特利奇,为受过教育但非学术性的读者撰写了他的专著《斯巴达》,但我找不到他讨论斯巴达人种族起源的文章。
几年前,我向几位古典学教授询问古希腊人的种族问题时,他们只是耸了耸肩,表示没有人知道,也不值得研究。
今天,对古人种族的兴趣似乎被视为一种不健康的迹象,任何关于他们的北欧起源的证据都被忽视了,因为他们害怕这会引起危险的情绪。

A hundred years ago, however, Europeans took it for granted that many Greeks and Romans were the same race as themselves. The famed 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica, published in 1911, noted that “survival of fair hair and complexion and light eyes among the upper classes in Thebes and some other localities shows that the blond type of mankind which is characteristic of north-western Europe had already penetrated into Greek lands before classical times.” It added that the early Greeks, or Hellenes, were Nordic, one of “the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi.” Sixty years ago even Bertrand Russell, the British philosopher and socialist, believed that the Hellenes “were fair-haired invaders from the North, who brought the Greek language with them” (History of Western Philosophy, 1946).



In fact, there was a good basis for the 1911 Britannica to write about blonds in Thebes. Thebes was the leading city of Boeotia, a rich agricultural region in south-central Greece. Fragments from an ancient 150 BC travelogue describe the women of Thebes as “the tallest, prettiest, and most graceful in all of Hellas. Their yellow hair is tied up in a knot on the top of their head.” Pindar, a fifth century Theban lyric poet, refers to the Greeks as “the fair-haired Danaoi,” using a poetical name for the Hellenes. Likewise, in his Partheneia, or “Maiden Songs,” the seventh century BC Spartan poet Alcman, praised the beauty of Spartan female athletes, with their “golden hair” and “violet eyes.” He also wrote of Spartan women with “silver eyes,” meaning light gray. The seventh-century BC Greek poet Archilochus praises the “yellow hair” of one of his lovers, and Sappho — also of the seventh century BC — writes of her “beautiful daughter, golden like a flower.”

事实上,1911年的《大英百科全书》对底比斯的金发女郎有很好的描写基础。
底比斯是希腊中南部富饶的农业区 维奥蒂亚(古希腊一城邦) 的主要城市,公元前150年的一份古代游记中的一些片段将底比斯的女人描述为“全希腊最高、最漂亮、最优雅的女人,她们将金色头发在头顶打结。”
五世纪底比斯抒情诗人品达把希腊人称为“金发的达纳伊 ” ,用一个诗意的名字来称呼希腊人。
同样的,公元前七世纪的斯巴达诗人阿尔克曼在他的《 帕特尼里亚 》中,赞美了斯巴达女运动员的美丽,她们有着“金色的头发”和“紫色的眼睛” ,他还写到斯巴达妇女有“银色的眼睛” ,意思是浅灰色。
公元前7世纪的希腊诗人阿尔基洛科斯赞扬他的一个情人的“黄头发” ,同样来自前7世纪的莎孚(古代希腊的女诗人)写到她美丽的女儿“金黄如花”。

As late as the fourth century AD, Adamantius, an Alexandrian physician and scientist, wrote in his Physiognominica, that “of all the nations the Greeks have the fairest eyes,” adding, that “wherever the Hellenic and Ionic race has been kept pure, we see tall men of fairly broad and straight build,… of fairly light skin, and blond.” Several centuries of mixing had presumably changed the racial character of many Greeks, but blonds still survived, and Xanthos, which means “yellow” in Greek, was a common personal name.

直到公元四世纪,亚历山大的医生和科学家阿达曼提乌斯在他的《相面》(Physiognominica) 一书中写道,“希腊人的眼睛是所有民族中最美丽的,”他还补充道,“在任何保持希腊和爱奥尼亚种族纯净的地方,我们都能看到身材高大、体格宽阔、皮肤白皙、金发碧眼的人。”
几个世纪的混居生活大概改变了许多希腊人的种族特征,但金发人仍然存活了下来,而“Xanthos”在希腊语中的意思是“黄色”,是一个常见的个人名字。

Professor Nell Painter of Princeton, author of The History of White People (see “Whiting Out White People,” AR, July 2010), complains that “not a few Westerners have attempted to racialize antiquity, making ancient history into white race history.” She points out that the Greeks often painted their marble statues — “the originals were often dark in color” — that the paint wore off over time, and Europeans mistakenly concluded from the white marble that the Greeks were white.

《白人的历史》一书的作者、普林斯顿大学教授内尔·佩因特抱怨说,“不少西方人试图把古代的东西种族化,把古代的历史变成了白人的历史。”
她指出,希腊人经常为他们的大理石雕像上色——“原来的大理石雕像通常是深色的”随着时间的推移,颜料会逐渐褪色——欧洲人错误地从白色大理石推断希腊人是白皮肤。

Yes, the Greeks painted their statues, but the originals were not dark. Praxiteles’ Aphrodite, from the Greek city of Knidos, was the most famous and most copied statue in the ancient world. Hundreds of copies survive. Experts have determined from microscopic paint particles that Aphrodite was painted blonde. The Romans had their own name for this goddess, Venus, and likewise her “cult images” were ubiquitous and “painted with pale-coloured flesh and golden-blonde hair” (see Joanna Pitman’s On Blondes, 2003).

是的,希腊人会给他们的雕像上色,但是他们的祖先并不是深色皮肤。
普拉克西特利斯的阿芙罗狄蒂来自希腊城市克尼多斯,是古代世界最著名和复制最多的雕像。
大量的副本幸存下来,专家们从显微镜下的油漆粒子中确定阿芙罗狄蒂是被漆成金黄色的。
罗马人对这位女神有自己的名字,维纳斯,同样她的“崇拜形象”无处不在,“苍白的肉体和金色的头发 ”(见乔安娜·皮特曼的《论金发女郎》,2003)。



There is more evidence of the appearance of the Greeks. Xenophanes, an Ionian Greek philosopher who lived in the fifth century BC, was amused to note that different peoples believed that the gods look like themselves: “Our gods have flat noses and black skins, say the Ethiopians. The Thracians (despite Prof. Cohen’s observations above) say our gods have red hair and hazel eyes.” Indeed, a fourth century BC fresco of a Thracian woman, found in the Ostrusha Mound in central Bulgaria, shows distinctly red hair and European features.

关于希腊人的出现有更多的证据。
生活在公元前五世纪的爱奥尼亚希腊哲学家色诺芬尼发现,不同的民族相信神长得像他们自己,他觉得很有趣,
埃塞俄比亚人说,我们的神有扁平的鼻子和黑色的皮肤,色雷斯人( 暂不讨论科恩教授的观察 ) 说我们的神有红头发和淡褐色的眼睛。事实上,在保加利亚中部的奥斯托罗沙土堆中发现的一幅公元前4世纪的壁画上,一位色雷斯妇女有着红色的头发,欧洲人的特征十分明显。

The Greek poet Hesiod (c. 700 BC) called Troy the “land of fair women.” According to the Roman historian Diodorus Sicilus, who lived in the first century BC, the Egyptian god Set had “reddish hair,” a color that was “rare in Egypt, but common among the Hellenes.” Plutarch (46–120 AD) tells us that while the Theban general Pelopidas (d. 364 BC) was campaigning in central Greece, he had a dream in which a ghost urged him to sacrifice a red-haired virgin if he wished to be victorious in the next day’s battle.

希腊诗人赫西奥德 ( 公元前700年) 称特洛伊为“ 美丽女人的土地” 根据罗马前1世纪的历史学家狄奥多罗斯·西西卢斯的说法,埃及的塞特神有“微红的头发” ,这种颜色“在埃及很少见,但在希腊人中很常见”, 普鲁塔克 ( 公元46-120年) 告诉我们,底比斯将军佩洛皮达斯 ( 公元前364年) 在希腊中部作战时,他做了一个梦,梦中一个鬼魂催促他贡献一个红发处女,如果他希望在第二天的战斗中获胜的话。

Two racial types
There were two racial types in ancient Greece: dark-haired whites and fair-haired whites, as well as gradations in between. The earliest known inhabitants were of the former type. These included the Minoans, who were not Greeks at all, and who built an impressive civilization on the island of Crete. The Pelasgians, which is the name later Greeks gave to the pre-Hellenic population of mainland Greece, were also dark. They tended to have black, curly hair and olive-shaped eyes. Their type is plainly visible on many Attic (Athenian) vases, and has lead some scholars to conclude that all Greeks looked as they did.

两个种族类型
古希腊有两个人种:黑发白人和金发白人,以及介于两者之间的等级,已知最早的居民属于前一种类型。
其中包括米诺斯人,他们根本不是希腊人,他们在克里特岛上建立了令人印象深刻的文明。
佩拉斯吉人 ( 后来希腊人给希腊大陆以前的居民起的名字 ) 也是黑发,他们往往有黑色的卷发和橄榄色的眼睛。
他们的种族类型在许多雅典人的花瓶上清晰可见,这使得一些学者得出结论,认为所有的希腊人看起来都是这个样子。

Neither the Minoans nor the Pelasgians spoke Greek — the linear A inscxtions of the Minoans have still not been deciphered — so the Greek language must have arrived with the light-haired conquerors who migrated from the north, most likely from the middle Danube River Valley. According to Greek national myth, the Hellenes were descended from Hellen (not to be confused with Helen of Troy), the son of Deucalion. Hellen had sons and grandsons, who correspond to the four main tribal divisions of ancient Greece: the Aeolians Achaeans, Ionians, and Dorians.

无论是米诺斯人还是比利时人,都不会说希腊语——米诺斯人的 a 线性至今尚未被破译——因此,希腊语一定是和那些从北方迁徙而来的浅色头发的征服者一起来到这里的,他们很可能来自多瑙河流域中部。
根据希腊国家神话,希腊人是海伦( 不要和特洛伊的海伦混淆 ) 的后裔,他是丢卡利翁的儿子,海伦有儿子和孙子,他们分属于古希腊的四个主要部落: 埃奥利亚人、亚该亚人、伊奥尼亚人和多里安人。

Scholars today tend to dismiss such myths but they would not have survived if they had not been generally consistent with the long folk memories of ancient peoples. In this case they point to what classical scholars have long believed was a series of Hellenic descents upon mainland Greece and the Aegean islands. The first Hellenes to arrive were the Ionians and Aeolians; then a few centuries later, the Achaeans, and finally the Dorians.

今天的学者倾向于摒弃这些神话,但是如果它们没有与古代民族的长期民间记忆基本一致,它们就不会存在。
在这种情况下, 他们指出了古典学者长期以来所认为的希腊大陆和爱琴海岛屿的一系列衰落。
第一批到达的希腊人是伊奥尼亚人和埃奥利安人,然后是几个世纪之后的亚该亚人,最后是多利安人。
青铜时代早期的希腊文明 ( 公元前1600-1200年) 肯定受到米诺斯文明和其他东地中海文化的影响,但毫无疑问,它是希腊文明。

The early bronze-age Greek civilization (1600-1200 BC) was certainly influenced by Minoan and other eastern Mediterranean cultures, but it was unmistakably Greek. Linear B, which began to dominate Cretan culture around 1500 BC, has been deciphered and found to be an early form of Greek. Around the year 1200 BC this culture, known as Mycenaean, collapsed; its cities were destroyed and abandoned, and Greece entered a 400-year Dark Age. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions probably played a part in the destruction, and later Greeks attributed it to invasions from the north. Waves of Hellenic warriors swept down and burned the Mycenaean citadels and became the ruling race in Greece. They also sacked the city of Troy, and Homer’s Iliad is about them. They also seem to have snuffed out much of Mycenaean culture: Greeks stopped writing, and abandoned the arts, urban life, and trade with the outside world.

公元前1500年左右开始主宰克里特文化的线性b,已被破译并发现是希腊文化的早期形式。
大约在公元前1200年,这种被称为迈锡尼的文化崩溃了,它的城市被摧毁和遗弃,希腊进入了400年的黑暗时代。 地震和火山爆发可能是造成破坏的原因之一,后来希腊人将其归因于北方的入侵。
一波又一波的希腊战士横扫并焚烧迈锡尼的城堡,成为希腊的统治者。
他们还洗劫了特洛伊城,荷马的《伊利亚特》就是关于他们的,他们似乎也扼杀了大部分迈锡尼文明:希腊人停止了写作,放弃了艺术、城市生活和与外部世界的贸易。

We know something about the early Hellenes from the Iliad. It was first written down in the late eighth century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Age, after the Phoenicians taught the Greeks how to write again. It recounts events some four to five hundred years earlier. Although we think of the poem as being about the Greeks, Homer’s warrior heroes belong to the Achaean nobility, which suggests that it was the Achaeans who overthrew Mycenaean civilization, not the Dorians, who would descend upon Greece and displace the Achaeans a hundred years later. Archeology confirms this supposition, for Troy was burned around 1200 BC, and the traditional date for the Trojan War is 1184 BC. The Dorian invasion is dated by various ancient historians at 1149, 1100, or 1049 BC.

我们从《伊利亚特》中知道一些关于早期希腊人的情况。
最早是在公元前8世纪晚期,也就是希腊黑暗时代的末期,腓尼基人教希腊人如何重新书写。
它叙述了大约四五百年前的事件,尽管我们认为这首诗是关于希腊人的,但荷马史诗中的战士英雄属于亚该亚的贵族,这表明推翻迈锡尼文明的是亚该亚人,而不是多利安人,他们在一百年后突袭希腊并取代亚该亚人。
考古学证实了这一假设,因为特洛伊城大约在公元前1200年被烧毁,而特洛伊战争的传统日期是公元前1184年。 多位古代历史学家认为,多利安人的入侵可以追溯到公元前1149年、1100年或1049年。

There is good reason to think that Homer was recording stories handed down during the Dark Age. He was a bard who lived in Ionia, a region on the Aegean coast of what is now Turkey, and if he were making the stories up he would have claimed that the heroes were Ionian. Instead, he sings praises to the light-haired Achaean nobility: Achilles, their greatest warrior, has “red-gold hair,” Odysseus, their greatest strategist, has “chestnut hair,” his wife Penelope has “white cheeks the color of pure snow,” Agamede, a healer and expert on medicinal plants, is “blonde,” and King Menelaus of Sparta, the husband of Helen, has “red hair.” Helen, likewise, has “fair hair,” and even slave girls are light-skinned: “fair-tressed Hecamede,” “fair-cheeked Chryseis,” and “blonde Briseis.” This is significant, for if even some of the slaves were blond it would mean the Nordic type was not unique to the Achaeans, that it was present elsewhere in the Aegean world.

我们有充分的理由认为荷马记录的是黑暗时代流传下来的故事。
他是一个吟游诗人,生活在现在的土耳其的爱琴海沿岸的爱奥尼亚地区,如果他在编故事,他会声称英雄是爱奥尼亚人,相反,他歌颂浅发的亚该亚贵族:
阿喀琉斯,他们最伟大的战士,有着“红金色的头发”, 奥德修斯,他们最伟大的战略家,有着“栗色的头发” ,他的妻子佩内洛普有着“洁白如雪的脸颊” , 阿加米德,一位药用植物的医生和专家,是“金发” ,斯巴达国王墨涅拉俄斯,海伦的丈夫,有着“红色的头发” ,同样地,海伦有着“金色的头发” ,甚至奴隶女孩也是浅肤色: “白皙的赫卡梅德”、“白皙的克莱塞斯”和“金发碧眼的布里塞伊斯”
这是非常重要的,因为如果有些奴隶都是金发的,这也意味着北欧人种的特征并不是亚该亚人所独有的,在爱琴海世界的其他地方也存在。

Homer (and Pindar) describe most of the Olympian gods and goddesses as fair haired and “bright eyed,” meaning blue, grey or green. The goddess Demeter has “blond” or “yellow hair,” as does Leto, mother of Apollo, who is also described as “golden haired.” Aphrodite has “pale-gold” hair, and Athena is known as “the fair, bright-eyed one” and the “grey-eyed goddess.” Two of the gods, Poseidon and Hephaestus, are described as having black hair. As noted above, Xenophanes complained that all peoples imagine the gods to look like themselves.

荷马(和品达)描述大多数奥林匹亚的神和女神为金发和“明亮的眼睛” ,意思是蓝色,灰色或绿色。
得墨忒耳女神是“金发”或“黄发” ,阿波罗的母亲莱托也是如此,她也被描述为“金发”, 阿芙罗狄蒂有“浅金色”的头发,而雅典娜则被描述为“美丽、明亮的眼睛”和“灰色眼睛的女神” 波塞冬和赫菲斯托斯是众神中的两位,他们的头发是黑色的,正如上所述色诺芬尼所抱怨的,所有的种族都把神想象成他们自己的样子。

It was the Dorians, the last Greek invaders, who ended Achaean rule and probably provoked a mass migration of Aeolian and Ionian Hellenes — no doubt including Homer’s ancestors — across the Aegean Sea to the coast of Asia Minor. The Dorians who settled in the fertile valley of the Eurotas in the southern Peloponnesus were the direct ancestors of the Spartans of the classical age, and they claimed to be the only pure Dorians.



Thus, classical Greece was a fusion, both cultural and racial, of these two types of whites. Some city-states, such as Thebes and Sparta, were predominantly Nordic. Others, such as Athens, were predominantly Mediterranean, and still others were mixtures of the two.

因此,古典希腊是这两种白人在文化和种族上的融合。
一些城邦,如底比斯和斯巴达,主要是北欧人,其他人,如雅典,主要是地中海人,还有一些人是两者的混合。

Ananias Dare says:
We know something about the early Hellenes from the Iliad. It was first written down in the late eighth century BC, at the end of the Greek Dark Age, after the Phoenicians taught the Greeks how to write again.

“ 我们从《伊利亚特》中知道一些关于早期希腊人的情况。
最早是在公元前8世纪晚期,也就是希腊黑暗时代的末期,腓尼基人教希腊人如何重新书写。”

Well, there’s much debate on this point, but most of the studies that I have read indicate that the Iliad was probably not written down until the 6th century BC during the reign of Peisistratos. The 8th century BC is commonly regarded as marking the period when the oral composition of the Iliad( and the Odyssey) reached its final stage.

——关于这一点有很多争论,但我读到的大多数研究表明,《伊利亚特》可能直到公元前6世纪庇西特拉托斯统治时期才被写下来,公元前8世纪通常被认为是《伊利亚特》(和《奥德赛》)的口述创作达到最后阶段的时期。